Optimization of laser dynamics for active stabilization of DF-VECSELs dedicated to cesium CPT clocks
We report the implementation and performance of a double servo-loop for intensity and phase-difference active stabilization of a dual-frequency vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) for coherent pop- ulation trapping (CPT) of cesium atoms in the framework of compact atomic clocks. In-phase fully correlated pumping of the two laser modes is identified as the best scheme for intensity noise reduction, and an analytical model allows optimization of the active stabilization strategy. Optical phase locking the beat-note to a local oscil-lator leads to a phase noise level below −103 dBc/Hz at 100 Hz from the carrier. The laser contribution to the short-term frequency stability of the clock is predicted to be compatible with a targeted Allan deviation below σ y = 5 × 10 −13 over 1 s.